Bertrand Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, social critic and political activist.
During the First World War, Russell was one of the very few people to engage in active pacifist activities, and in 1916, he was dismissed from Trinity College following his conviction under the Defence of the Realm Act.
Russell played a significant part in the Leeds Convention in June 1917—an historic event which saw well over a thousand “anti-war socialists” gather; many being delegates from the Independent Labour Party and the Socialist Party, united in their pacifist beliefs and advocating a peace settlement.
A later conviction for publicly lecturing against inviting the US to enter the war on Britain’s side resulted in six months’ imprisonment in Brixton prison in 1918. While in prison, Russell read enormously, and wrote the book Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy.